The chemical element Lead (Latin: Plumbum) with chemical symbol Pb

is a metal with atomic number 82 and atomic weight of 207.2. It has a melting point of 327.5 C ° and a boiling point of 1,740 C °. Its specific gravity (density) is 11.3gr / cm3. When a lead is freshly cut it has a bluish-white color which tarnishes to a dull grayish color due to oxidation of a small external layer from the air oxygen. Lead has a chrome-silver luster when melted inside liquid.

Lead has been commonly used for thousands of years because it is widespread, easy to extract and work with. It was discovered in 7000 B.C. in the Middle East and is one of the most important metals in the human history along with gold, silver, copper, and tin. It provides a unique protection against radioactivity.

Natural metallic lead has not been found in nature. Lead occurs from mineral ores, mainly galena (PbS). Other common varieties are with silver, copper, bismuth, and iron. Secondary lead minerals are cerussite (PbCO3) and anglesite (PbSO4), which are found in many geographical locations.


    In the 21st Century lead remains irreplaceable. Global lead consumption exceeds 11 million tonnes per year. In the USA 80% of the demand comes from recycling while in Europe the secondary production covers 60% of the demand.

    Lead batteries are at the forefront of consumer products that can be recycled worldwide. 90% of the world lead consumption is used in products that can be recycled and for that reason, lead has the highest recycling rate than all the other common non-ferrous metals.

    Lead recycling contributes significantly to sustainable development by saving non- renewable natural resources and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Over 50% of the overall amount of lead used worldwide comes from recycling. Lead has one of the highest rates of recyclable materials worldwide.

    The recycled lead retains its original technical characteristics without any degradation in quality. The recycling of lead batteries is imperative.

Symbol :
Atomic number :
Atomic Mass :
Melting Point :
327.5 °C
Boiling point :
1740.0 °C
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Neutron Numbers :
Crystalline Structure :
Density :
293Κ & 11,36 g/cm3
Color :